Maramorosh (Hungarian: Maramaros)
Maramorosh (Hungarian: Maramaros) — historic county in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north and east, *Bereg and *Ugocha/Ugocsa counties to the west, and Sokmar/Szatmar and Szolnok-Doboka counties to the south. Maramorosh was formed in 1303 and lasted until 1919, after which its territory was incorporated into Czechoslovakia and Romania. Maramorosh county covered 10,354 sq. kilometers and was subdivided into 9 districts (jaras) and 159 villages; its administrative center was Sighet (Hungarian: Maramarossziget; Romanian: Sighetu Marmatiei; Rusyn: Maramorosh Siget). According to present-day administrative boundaries, the former Maramorosh county includes the Rakhiv, Tiachovo, Khust, Mizhhir”ia, and part of the Irshava districts (raiony) of the Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine and the northern part of the Maramures district (judete) in Romania. The population of Maramorosh in 1910 numbered 357,700, of whom 159,500 were Rusyns; 84,500 Romanians; 60,000 Germans; and 53,000 Magyars. Within the religious category there were 66,000 Jews.
Since the Middle Ages Maramorosh county was known for its rich salt mines near Solotvyno and later for its lumber resources, which were floated down the Tisza (Rusyn: Tysa) River to markets in lowland Hungary. As a result of decisions taken at the Paris Peace Conference (treaties of *St. Germain, 1919, and *Trianon, 1920), Maramorosh was divided, with about three-fifths of its territory going to Czechoslovakia and the remainder, south of the Tisza River (its left bank), going to Romania. That portion of the county that went to Romania was inhabited primarily by Romanians, although it included as well about a dozen Rusyn villages just east of Sighet along the left bank of the Tisza River and its tributaries the Viseu (Rusyn: Vyshova) and Ruscova (Rusyn: Rus’kova) rivers. In Czechoslovakia Ugocha county was joined with Maramorosh to form a single county (Czech: Marmaros), with its administrative center in Sevliush (present-day Vynohradovo) and later Khust. In 1927 Maramorosh along with other historic counties ceased to exist following the administrative reform in Czechoslovakia.
Bibliography: Gabriel Varady, “Das Maramaroser Comitat,” in Die osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 439-462; Janos Mihalyi, Maramarosmegye tortenete (Sighet, 1901); Jozsef Pap, Adalekok Maramaros tortenetehez (Sighet, 1909); Vasylii Hadzhega, “Dodatky k ystorii rusynov y rus’kykh tserkvei v Maramoroshi,” Naukovyi zbornyk Tovarystva ‘Prosvita’, I (Uzhhorord, 1922), pp. 140-226; Alexandru Filipascu, Istoria Maramuresului (Bucharest, 1940)—2nd ed. (Baia Mare, 1997); Vilmos Belay, Maramaros megye tarsadalma es nemzetisegei (Budapest, 1943); Mariana Sustic, Istoria Maramuresului (Sighet, 1997).
Paul Robert Magocsi
Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.